On August 13, 1814, Pope Pius VII issued an Edict forbidding the meetings of all secret societies, and especially the Freemasons and Carbonari, under heavy corporal penalties, to which were to be added, according to the malignity of the cases, partial or entire confiscation of goods, or a pecuniary fine. The Edict also renewed the Bull of Clement XII, by which the punishment of death was incurred by those who obstinately persisted in attending the meetings of Freemasons (see Persecutions).
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