The chief presiding officer of the Symbolic Degrees in a Jurisdiction. He presides, of course, over the Grand Lodge, and has the right not only to be present, but also to preside in every Lodge, with the Master of the Lodge on his left hand, and to order his Grand Wardens to attend him, and act as Wardens in that particular Lodge. He has the right of visiting the Lodges and inspecting their books and mode of work as often as he pleases, or, if unable to do so, he may depute his Grand Officers to act for him. He has the power of granting Dispensations for the formation of new Lodges; which Dispensations are of force until revoked by himself or the Grand Lodge. He may also grant Dispensations for several other purposes (see the article Dispensation). Formerly, the Grand Master appointed his Grand Officers, but this regulation has been repealed, and the Grand Officers are now all elected by the Grand Lodges, except in England, where the Grand Master appoints all but the Grand Treasurer. When the Grand Master visits a Lodge, he must he received with the greatest respect, and the Master of the Lodge should always offer him the chair, which the Grand Master may or may not accept at his pleasure. Should the Grand Master die, or be absent from the Jurisdiction during his term of office, the Deputy Grand Master assumes his powers, or, if there be no Deputy, then the Grand Wardens according to seniority.
The following is a list of the Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of England, established in 1717 and afterward known as the Moderns:
1717. Antony Sayer. 1718. George Payne. 1719. J. T. Desaguliers, LL.D., F.R.S. 1720. George Payne. 1721. John, Duke of Montague. 1722. Philip, Duke of Wharton. 1723. Francis, Earl of Dalkeith. 1724. Charles, Duke of Richmond. 1725. Jarnes, Lord Paisley. 1726. William, Earl of Inchiquin. 1727. Henry, Lord Coleraine. 1728. James, Lord Kingston. 1729. Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. 1731. Thomas, Lord Lovel. 1732. Anthony, Viscount Montague. 1733. James, Earl of Strathmore. 1734. John, Earl of Crawford. 1745. Thomas, Viscount Weymouth. 1736. John, Earl of Londoun. 1737. Edward, Earl of Darnley. 1738. sir Henry, Marquess r 1739. Robert, Lord Raymond 1740. John, Earl of Wintore 1741. James, Earl of Morton 1749. John, Viscount Dudlex and Ward. 1744. Thomas, Earl of Strathmore. 1745. James, Lord Cranstoun. 1747. Williams Lord Byron. 1759. John, Lord Carysfort. 1754. James, Marquess of Carnarvon. 1757 . Sholts, Lord Aberdour. 1762. Washington, Earl Ferrers. 1764. Cadwallader, Lord Blaney. 1767. lIenry, Duke of Beaufort. 1772. Robert, Lord Petre. 1777. George, Duke of Manehester. 1782. H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland. 1790. H. R. H. The Prinee of hi ales. 1813. H. R. H. The Duke of Sussex. The following is a list of the Grand Masters of the Atholl or Antients Grand Lodge: 1753. Robert Turner. 1754. Hon. Edward Vaughan. 1756. Earl of Blesinton. 1760. Thomas, Earl of Relly. 1766. Hon. Thos. Mathew. 1771. John third Duke of Atholl. 1775. John fourth Duke of Atholl 1789. Vacant. 1783. Randal, Earl of Antrim. 1791. John, fourth Duke of Atholl. 1813. H. R. H. The Duke of Rent. The following is a list of the Grand Masters of the United Grand Lodge of England from the Union of Ancient and Moderns in 1813: 1813. H. R. H. The Duke of Sussex. 1844. Earl of Zetland. 1870. Marquis of Ripon. 1874. H. R. H. The Prince of Wales. 1901. H. R. H. The Duke of Connaught.
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